Here is the Emir of Bukhara, Alim Khan (1880-1944), in a photo taken in 1911.
This is just one of a rich collection of images from the Russian empire, called the Prokudin-Gorskii Photographic Record, now housed in the Library of Congress and available for viewing online.
The photograph was made by shooting three plates in quick succession using red, green, and blue filters. Originally they were intended to be projected by lantern slides using the same color filters. Technicians were able to digitally scan and recombine the plates into the image you see here. Color photography was thus possible long before it appeared elsewhere.
Empire that was Russia: Process
Pictures of Ethnic Diversity
Previously on GJ: Early Color Photos